Manipulating PDFs with Python

5 TA Tim Arnold Nov 6, 2014

PDF documents are beautiful things, but that beauty is often only skin deep. Inside, they might have any number of structures that are difficult to understand and exasperating to get at. The PDF reference specification (ISO 32000-1) provides rules, but it's programmers who follow them, and they, like all programmers, are a creative bunch.

That means that in the end, a beautiful PDF document is really meant to be read and its internals are not to be messed with. Well, we are programmers too, and we are a creative bunch, so we'll see how we can get at those internals.

Still, the best advice if you have to extract or add information to a PDF is: don't do it. Well, don't do it if there is any way you can get access to the information further upstream. If you want to scrape that spreadsheet data in a PDF, see if you can get access to it before it became part of the PDF. Chances are, now that it's inside the PDF, it's just a bunch of lines and numbers with no connection to its former structure of cells, formats, and headings.

If you cannot get access to the information further upstream, this tutorial will show you some of the ways you can get inside the PDF using Python.

Survey of Tools

There are several Python packages that can help. The following list displays some of the most popular ones, although undoubtedly I've omitted some tools.

pdfrw: Read and write PDF files; watermarking, copying images from one PDF to another. Includes sample code. MIT License. Recently updated to Python 3. Check out this tutorial by pdfrw's creator, which mirrors the examples in this article.

slate : Active development. Simplifies extracting text from PDF files. Wrapper around PDFMiner. Includes documentation on GitHub and PyPI. Python 2.6. GPL License. repo

PDFQuery : Active development. PDF scraping with Jquery or XPath syntax. Requires PDFMiner, pyquery and lxml libraries. Includes sample code, documentation. Seems to be Python 2.x. MIT License. repo

PDFMiner : Active development. Extracting text, images, object coordinates, metadata from PDF files. Pure Python. Includes sample code and command line interface; Google group and documentation. Python 2.x only. MIT License. repo

PyPDF2 : Active development. Split, merge, crop, etc. of PDF files. Pure Python. Includes sample code and command line interface, documentation. Python 2 and 3. BSD License. repo

Related Tools

This article focuses on extracting information with PDFMiner and manipulating PDFs with PyPDF2.

There are other Python projects for creating PDFs, and several non-Python tools available for manipulating PDFs. If none of the Python solutions described here fit your situation, see the section [Other Tools][] for more information.

Extracting: PDFMiner

The PDFMiner library excels at extracting data and coordinates from a PDF. In most cases, you can use the included command-line scripts to extract text and images ( or find objects and their coordinates ( If you're dealing with a particularly nasty PDF and you need to get more detailed , you can import the package and use it as library. Install it with pip.

The command

The package includes the command-line command, which you can use to extract text and images. The command supports many options and is very flexible. Some popular options are shown below. See the usage information for complete details. [options] filename.pdf
    -o output file name
    -p comma-separated list of page numbers to extract
    -t output format (text/html/xml/tag[for Tagged PDFs])
    -O dirname (triggers extraction of images from PDF into directory)
    -P password

That's right, you can even use the command to convert a PDF to HTML or XML! For example, say you want the HTML version of the first and third pages of your PDF, including images. -O myoutput -o myoutput/myfile.html -t html -p 1,3 myfile.pdf

Note that the package cannot recognize text drawn as images because that would require optical character recognition. It does extract the corresponding locations, font names, font sizes, etc., for each bit of text. Often this is good enough--you can extract the text and use typical Python patterns for text processing to get the text or data into a usable form.

The command

The package also includes the command-line command, which you can use to find the objects and their coordinates inside a PDF file. [options] filename.pdf
    -a dump all objects
    -p comma-separated list of page numbers to extract
    -i object id
    -E dirname (extract embedded files from the PDF into directory)
    -T dump the table of contents (bookmark outlines)
    -p password

This is very useful when you have a problematic PDF and you want to know the exact object IDs that it contains. For example, you might need to know the object ID corresponding to an image in the PDF so you can extract only that image. Here's an example: -a filename.pdf | more
# search for the string 'Image' and find the ID; '33' for example. -i 33 -r filename.pdf > myimage.jpg

You run the command with the -a option first so you can review the objects and their IDs, find the object you want (images have a SubType of Image), then re-run the command with the -i option to extract only that object.

Use as a Library

If you're writing Python code and you don't want to shell out to the command line with os.system or subprocess, use the package as a library. For example, to extract text from a PDF:

from cStringIO import StringIO
from pdfminer.pdfinterp import PDFResourceManager, PDFPageInterpreter
from pdfminer.converter import TextConverter
from pdfminer.layout import LAParams
from pdfminer.pdfpage import PDFPage

def convert(fname, pages=None):
    if not pages:
        pagenums = set()
        pagenums = set(pages)

    output = StringIO()
    manager = PDFResourceManager()
    converter = TextConverter(manager, output, laparams=LAParams())
    interpreter = PDFPageInterpreter(manager, converter)

    infile = file(fname, 'rb')
    for page in PDFPage.get_pages(infile, pagenums):
    text = output.getvalue()
    return text 

The convert function is called with the name of the PDF file in question, and optionally, a list of pages to process. By default, all pages are converted to text. The function returns a string containing the text. To retrieve the text extracted from myfile.pdf on pages 6 and 8, call the function as follows (internal page numbering starts at zero).

convert('myfile.pdf', pages=[5,7])

PDFMiner provides functions to access the document's table of contents. If your PDF has bookmarks or "Outlines", you can extract the table of contents with this code snippet:

from pdfminer.pdfparser import PDFParser
from pdfminer.pdfdocument import PDFDocument

def get_toc(pdf_path):
    infile = open(pdf_path, 'rb')
    parser = PDFParser(infile)
    document = PDFDocument(parser)

    toc = list()
    for (level,title,dest,a,structelem) in document.get_outlines():
        toc.append((level, title))

    return toc

Note: If you change line 11 to read toc.append((level, title, a.resolve())), the resulting list will contain the actual internal destinations for bookmarks. A typical entry looks like this:

(1, u'Other Commands', {'S': /GoTo, 'D': 'section.8'})

...where the section "Other Commands" is a first level section and it is the 8th section in the PDF. You can use this information to construct an HTML URL that opens the PDF at that destination. In this example, the URL would look like this:

<a href="path/to/myfile.pdf#section.8">link text</a>

When you follow the URL, the browser opens the PDF at the location of the section titled "Other Commands."

How do you know how to piece everything together, what with the manager, the parser, the document, etc.? The documentation for the package is helpful, but in addition, the source code for the command-line commands is straightforward and shows how you can configure your own code. The source for the scripts reside in a subdirectory called tools. In fact, the entire source code is readable and provides good, Pythonic, examples.

Manipulating: PyPDF2

You can manipulate PDF files in a variety of ways using the pure-Python PyPDF2 toolkit. The original pyPDF library is officially no longer being developed but the pyPDF2 library has taken up the project under the new name and continues to develop and enhance the library. The development team is dedicated to keeping the project backward compatible. Install it with pip.

Want to merge two PDFs? Merge can mean a couple of things. You can merge, in the sense of inserting the contents of one PDF after the content of another, or you can merge by applying one PDF page on top of another.

Merge (layer)

For an example of the latter case, if you have a one-page PDF containing a watermark, you can layer it onto each page of another PDF.

Say you've created a PDF with transparent watermark text (using Photoshop, Gimp, or LaTeX). If this PDF is named wmark.pdf, the following python code will stamp each page of the target PDF with the watermark.

from PyPDF2 import PdfFileWriter, PdfFileReader
output = PdfFileWriter()

ipdf = PdfFileReader(open('sample2e.pdf', 'rb'))
wpdf = PdfFileReader(open('wmark.pdf', 'rb'))
watermark = wpdf.getPage(0)

for i in xrange(ipdf.getNumPages()):
    page = ipdf.getPage(i)

with open('newfile.pdf', 'wb') as f:

If your watermark PDF is not transparent it will hide the underlying text. In that case, make sure the content of the watermark displays on the header or margin so that when it is merged, no text is masked. For example, you can use this technique to stamp a logo or letterhead on each page of the target PDF.

Merge (append)

This snippet takes all the PDFs in a subdirectory named mypdfs and puts them in name-sorted order into a new PDF called output.pdf

from PyPDF2 import PdfFileMerger, PdfFileReader
import os

merger = PdfFileMerger()
files = [x for x in os.listdir('mypdfs') if x.endswith('.pdf')]
for fname in sorted(files):
    merger.append(PdfFileReader(open(os.path.join('mypdfs', fname), 'rb')))



If you want to delete pages, iterate over the pages in your source PDF and skip over the pages to be deleted as you write your new PDF. For example, if you want to get rid of blank pages in source.pdf:

from PyPDF2 import PdfFileWriter, PdfFileReader
infile = PdfFileReader('source.pdf', 'rb')
output = PdfFileWriter()

for i in xrange(infile.getNumPages()):
    p = infile.getPage(i)
    if p.getContents(): # getContents is None if  page is blank

with open('newfile.pdf', 'wb') as f:

Since blank pages are not added to the output file, the result is that the new output file is a copy of the source but with no blank pages.


You want to split one PDF into separate one-page PDFs. Create a new file for each page and write it to disk as you iterate through the source PDF.

from PyPDF2 import PdfFileWriter, PdfFileReader 
infile = PdfFileReader(open('source.pdf', 'rb'))

for i in xrange(infile.getNumPages()):
    p = infile.getPage(i)
    outfile = PdfFileWriter()
    with open('page-%02d.pdf' % i, 'wb') as f:


You can even operate on slices of a source PDF, where each item in the slice is a page.

Say you have two PDFs resulting from scanning odd and even pages of a source document. You can merge them together, interleaving the pages as follows:

from PyPDF2 import PdfFileWriter, PdfFileReader 
even = PdfFileReader(open('even.pdf', 'rb'))
odd = PdfFileReader(open('odd.pdf', 'rb'))
all = PdfFileWriter()
all.addBlankPage(612, 792)

for x,y in zip(odd.pages, even.pages):

while all.getNumPages() % 2:

with open('all.pdf', 'wb') as f:

The first addBlankPage (line 5) insures that the output PDF begins with a blank page so that the first content page is on the right-hand side. Note that, when you add a blank page, the default page dimensions are set to the previous page. In this case, because there is no previous page, you must set the dimensions explicitly; 8.5 inches is 612 points, 11 inches is 792 points).

Alternatively, you might add a title page as the first page. In any case, putting the first content page on the right-hand side (odd numbered) is useful when your PDFs are laid out for a two-page (book-like) spread.

The last addBlankPage sequence (lines 11-12) insures there is an even number of pages in the final PDF. Like the first addBlankPage, this is an optional step, but could be important depending on how the final PDF will be used. For example, a print shop will appreciate that your PDFs do not end on an odd page.


You can set your own metadata in a PDF:

from PyPDF2 import PdfFileMerger

def add_metadata(name, data):
    merger = PdfFileMerger()
    with open('%s.pdf' % name, 'rb') as f0:


    with open('%s_update.pdf' % name, 'wb') as f1:

metadata = {u'/hey':u'there', u'/la':'deedah'}
add_metadata('myfile', metadata)

The function add_metadata opens the source PDF file and appends it to a new PdfFileMerger instance, resulting in a copy of the original PDF. Then it adds a special dictionary of key-value pairs into the new PDF metadata dictionary and writes the new PDF out to disk. The dictionary keys and values are unicode strings; also, the key string begins with a forward slash.

Why would you want to add metadata to a PDF? One situation is when you are processing PDFs as part of a larger workflow in which each PDF file must be processed exactly once. In that case, when you open a file for processing, you first check for the custom metadata key; if it is not present, you add the key and continuing processing the file. If it's already present, the file has already been processed, so you skip it and continue with the next file.

Other Operations

With the PyPDF2 package, you can also crop pages, add Javascript code, encrypt, rotate, scale, and transform pages. The documentation covers these uses and the sample code that comes with the package shows you how to do each operation.

The distribution contains a subdirectory called Sample_Code with several scripts that show you how. The script pdfcat is particularly interesting as it enables you to concatenate specified pages from multiple PDF files into one single PDF. For example (from the pdfcat documentation):

pdfcat -o output.pdf head.pdf content.pdf :6 7: tail.pdf -1
    Concatenate all of head.pdf, all but page seven of content.pdf, 
    and the last page of tail.pdf, producing output.pdf.

pdfcat chapter*.pdf >book.pdf
    You can specify the output file by redirection.

pdfcat chapter?.pdf chapter10.pdf >book.pdf
    In case you don't want chapter 10 before chapter 2.

Other Tools

If you commonly deal with PDFs, you need a deep toolbox to turn to. In addition to the tools Python provides for manipulating PDFs, the following libraries, packages, and programs enable you to do other types of tasks.

reportlab : Python package. Create PDF documents as well as vector and bitmap images. info

pdftk : GUI and command line. Merge, split PDF files, and more. info

fdfgen : Python package. Generates an FDF file containing form data that can be used with pdftk to populate a PDF form. repo

qpdf : C++ library and program suite. Transforms PDF files. Useful for linearizing/optimizing uncompressing, and encryption. repo

ghostscript : Interpreter for Postscript and PDF. info. Command-line info

XPDF : Open source project. Contains several useful tools such as pdffonts and pdfinfo. repo

pdffonts : lists fonts used in a PDF file including information on font type, whether the font is embedded, etc. Part of the open-source Xpdf project. Licensed under GPL v2.


pdffonts filename.pdf
name                            type          emb sub uni object ID
------------------------------- ------------- --- --- --- ---------
LFIGJB+ArialMT                  Type 1C       yes yes no      39  0
LFIGLB+Arial-BoldMT             Type 1C       yes yes no      41  0

pdfinfo : extracts contents of Info dictionary in a PDF file. Another part of the Xpdf project.


pdfinfo filename.pdf
Title:          HILs.pdf
Creator:        Acrobat PDFMaker 10.0 for Word
Producer:       Acrobat Distiller 9.3.0 (Windows)
CreationDate:   Mon Jun  2 11:16:53 2014
ModDate:        Mon Jun  2 11:16:53 2014
Tagged:         no
Pages:          3
Encrypted:      no
Page size:      612 x 792 pts (letter)
File size:      39177 bytes
Optimized:      yes
PDF version:    1.5


There's some overlap in capability between PDFMiner and PyPDF2, but you'll still have to make a choice when deciding which to use and learn. Both libraries are in active development and the developers are dedicated to providing good code. Browsing the source is good way to learn about both Python and PDF internals.

There are some nasty PDFs out there, but there are several tools you can use to get what you need from them, and Python enables you to get inside and scrape, split, merge, delete, and crop just about whatever you find.


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  • L Luan 3 months ago
    There are any pretty way for me to replace a string inside a pdf?
  • FF Fernando Fran├ža 1 year ago
    Very usefull, thanks a lot!
  • K kthakur 2 years ago
    Hi, I tried using your merge recipe to rotate counterclockwise, before merging, but it doesnt really work (I think it may be due to handling the pdf read as a stream?). I keep getting the error : AttributeError: 'PageObject' object has no attribute 'seek'
    • TA Tim Arnold 2 years ago
      hi @kthakur, thanks for writing. You are almost there, but the PdfFileMerger append method takes a PDF object, not a page object. I think using the PdfFileWriter will be simpler. The following code creates a new PDF file from the rotated first pages, which I think you are going for: from PyPDF2 import PdfFileWriter, PdfFileReader import os newpdf = PdfFileWriter() files = [x for x in os.listdir('mypdfs') if x.endswith('.pdf')] for fname in sorted(files): mypdfObj = PdfFileReader(open(os.path.join('mypdfs', fname), 'rb')) mypdfPg = mypdfObj.getPage(0) mypdfPgRt = mypdfPg.rotateCounterClockwise(90) newpdf.addPage(mypdfPgRt) with open('output.pdf', 'wb') as f: newpdf.write(f)
    • K kthakur 2 years ago
      Hi Tim, Thanks! That fixed it and it works perfectly. I had been struggling with understanding how pypdf2 works. The documentation is a bit sparse and there are not too many examples available to help. Your article, though, is probably the most helpful. Thanks again.